Representatives of diabetes professionals nationwide held an enlightenment workshop tagged ‘Diabetes Self-Management Workshop’ in Lagos recently. GBUBEMI GOD’S COVENANT SNR reports that with the eating of salmon fish, herring and sardines and other fruits, patients may just eat their way to good and stable health.
Diabetes patients all over the world would be glad to learn that steady consumption of salmon, herring, and sardines and others fishes ensure the supply of omega-3 fatty acids that reduce the risk of Type-2 diabetes.
This was the first of many discoveries discussed at a workshop held at the Freedom Park in Lagos recently with over 300 persons living with the condition in attendance.
The workshop, organised by Diabetes Alert, a Nigerian coordinating Non-Governmental Organisation(NGO), affiliated with international diabetes professionals worldwide, presented papers on diabetes care and practice, managing complications, education and support, prevention strategies and in different age groups.
The programme coordinator, diabetes nurse specialist, Mrs. Vicky Bob-Manuel, announced that the workshop marked the beginning of counseling and teaching sessions with diabetes patients of all age groups nationwide.
“We are delighted to have this encouraging response and we look forward to sharing improved research information on the management and control of this disease that is ravaging the whole world,” Vicky declared, adding some statistics:
“Diabetes is becoming more common in the united states. From 1980 through 2002 to 2014, the number of Americans with diabetes doubled and increased in all age groups. In USA, more than 23 million people have diabetes. 1/3 of these are undiagnosed. Newly diagnosed cases
increased by about 1 million people per year (C.D.C and prevention 2008). By 2030, the number of cases is expected to exceed 30million.
“Fifteen years ago, worldwide estimation of the prevalence of diabetes was 171 million people; by 2030, it is expected to increase to more than 360 million according to a World Health Organisation (W.H.O) 2008 report.”
A representative from Delta State,Mrs. Onome Obaro, listed some challenges in dealing with diabetes: “One of the most challenging parts of diabetes management is the fact that patients have to make so many decisions every day on their own. Like what kind of meal is right for the moment, how much carbohydrate is in the meal? How much insulin should I take? What adjustments do I need to make?’ etc. And the situation is worse for patients who are not literate living in the rural and grassroots areas.”
Vicky Bob-Manuel introduced the major topic of the day, and five speakers took time to explain research findings and ways to manage it among other topics.
What is pancreas?
It’s a gland near the stomach which secretes a fluid into the duodenum to help with food digestion.
The pancreas has three major cells classified as beta,alphaand delta cells.
Beta cell secretes insulin which lowers the glucose level in the blood. When a person eats a meal, insulin secretion increases and moves glucose from the blood into the muscle, liver and fat cells.
Alpha cell secrete glucagon which increases the sugar level in the blood during fasting or when the blood glucose level decreases and stimulates the liver to release stored glucose.
When pancreas and the liver is sick, the ability to perform this function reduces drastically, and a condition called diabetes mellitus is diagnosed.
Participants listened with rapt attention as speaker after speaker demystified the areas of diabetes in their categories.
“One of the useful tips researchers have gladdened our hearts with,” Vicky said, “is that apart from the consumption of salmon, herring fish and sardines, a steady intake of legumes, such as peanuts and soybeans, has been shown to markedly reduce the risk of type-2 diabetes; so it’s not all about drugs.”
A joint Vanderbilt University (Tennessee, USA) and Shanghai Cancer Institute (China) study observed 64,227 Chinese women for nearly five years.
In that study, diabetes risk was reduced by 38% in women with high intake of a variety of legumes, but in particular, a high intake of soybeans was associated with a 47% risk reduction.
There is diabetes, and there is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic non-communicable disease associated with disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, which has become an area of concern to all due to its increasing rate all over the world, especially in Nigeria.
DM is a disorder in which blood sugar level are abnormally high because the body does not produce enough insulin to meet its needs.
It is a metabolic disease, characterized by increase level of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both.
The predisposing factors include Genetic Tendency, Auto-immune Response and Environmental Factors (e.g. viruses, toxins, tumor, inflammation) etc,
*Heredity, obesity, age (above 45), previously identified impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension (higher than 140/90mmHg), history of gestational diabetes or delivery of big babies (over 4kg).
The major classifications of diabetes mellitus are:
Type 1 – juvenile diabetes/insulin dependence diabetes
Type 2 – non-insulin dependence diabetes Other lesser ones are gestational diabetes; Malnutrition-related diabetes; Diabetes mellitus due to hormonal imbalance; Pancreas-related diabetes mellitus and Liver-related diabetes mellitus.
Signs and symptoms
Clinical manifestations of all type-diabetes include the 3p’s:
- a) Polyuria: Increased urination
- b) Polydipsia: Increased thirst
c.) Polyphagia: Increased appetite
Other symptoms include fatigue, sudden vision change, tingling or numbness in hands and feet, dry skin, skin lesion or wound that is slow to heal and recurrent infections.
The onset of type 1 diabetes may also be associated with sudden weight loss or nausea, vomiting or abdominal pains, hypertension and shock. Others include sweetish smell of ketones in the breath, and ketones in the urine, Kassmaul respiration (could be air hunger or deep sighing respiration due to acidosis-depressed respiration).
A person at high risk for type 2 diabetes must live a healthy life,maintain normal weight or reduce weight by 7% client BMI, and must be involved in a moderate physical activities.
The main goal of diabetes treatment is to normalise insulin activity and blood glucose level without hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) while maintaining a high quality of life, and reducing the development of vascular and neuropathic complication.
Diabetes mellitus management has five components:
Nutritional therapy, exercise, self-monitoring, pharmacology therapy and education
Diets that reduce the risk of complications include:
Grains, e.g. wheat, corn-flour, millets, beans, brown rice, etc.
Wheat bread, unripe plantain, oatmeal/cereals, nuts/Seeds,lean meat/ fish/chicken, garden egg, crackers, cucumber vegetables and two small carrots, fats from plants, etc.
A-Z of foot care tips
In ruling over your diabetes, you must:
Inspect your feet everyday for cut, blisters, red spots and swelling. Use mirror to check the bottom of your feet or ask a family member for help if you have trouble seeing it, check for changes in temperature.
Wash your feet everyday in warm (not hot) water, dry your feet well, be sure to dry in between the toes, do not soak your feet, do not check water temperature with your feet, use your elbow or thermometer.
Keep the skin soft and smooth: rub a thin coat of skin lotion over the tops and bottoms of your feet, but not in-between your toes.
Smooth corns and calluses gently: use a purnice stone to smooth corns and calluses.
Trim your toe nails, file the edges with a nail file each week or when needed.
Wear shoes/slippers and socks at all times: never walk bare-footed, wear comfortable shoes that fit well and protect your feet, feel inside your shoes before putting them on each time to make sure the lining is smooth and there is no object inside.
Protect your feet from hot and cold: wear shoes at the beach or on hot pavement, wear socks at night if your feet get cold.
Keep the blood flowing to your feet: put your feet up when sitting, wiggle your toes and move your ankles up and down for five minutes, two or three times a day; do not cross your legs for long periods and, especially, do not smoke.
Check with your healthcare provider: patient may not feel pain of an injury, but must check his or her feet with the caregiver. Inform your caregiver right away if there is a cut, blister, or bruise that fails to improve within few days.
ABC of personal health management
A – Alone at least 30 minutes per day
B- Be aware of your stress meter: Know when to step back and cool down.
C – Concentrate on controlling your own situation, without controlling everybody else.
D- Daily exercise burns off stress chemicals
E- Eat lots of fresh fruits, vegetables and plenty of water
F- Forgive others, don’t hold grudges and be tolerant
H- Hug your spouse and children more, kiss them more and laugh more with them.
I – Have fun and share your feelings with your spouse
J – Judge your goals and performance realistically
K- Keep a positive attitude: your attitude will influence the way others treat you.
L – Love your spouse, children, siblings and your subordinates
M – Manage money well: acquire financial intelligence. Save at least 10 per cent of what you earn.
N- No is a word you need to learn to use for extra work demands without feeling guilty.
O – Outdoor activities with family members can be a great way to relax.
P- Participate in activities that have meaning to you, such as community, religious activities, etc.
Q- Quit smoking: it can make you die quickly
R- Relationships: nurture and enjoy them, learn to listen more and talk less.
S – Sleep well with a firm mattress and good pillow for at least 6-8 hours. When you wake up tired, your emotional threshold is low and makes you vulnerable to stress.
T- Treat yourself once a while with dinner out; pamper yourself. You deserve the best.
U – Understand things from the other person’s point of view; we may not see things equally.
V- Vacation: take as many weekend vacations as possible before your annual leave.
W – Verify facts and figures before getting annoyed
X – Worry less, what you cannot control, it makes no point to worry about them.
Y- Your health is your wealth; you can’t afford to be careless with it.
Z- Zest for life: Each day is a gift, smile and be thankful; live your life to the full everyday
Express yourself to the fullest; know what you want specifically and go for it.